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Climate Change And Its Impact On Agriculture
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Falling Crop Yields Under Warming Could See ‘rapid’ Decline In Bioenergy’s Potential
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Pm Modi Releases Climate Resilient Crop Varieties: How Will They Help India
Received: 27 June 2023 / Modified: 19 July 2023 / Accepted: 25 July 2023 / Published: 27 July 2023
(This article belongs to the special issue Climate Change and Food Security: Addressing Challenges from Farm to Fork)
In the past few years The impact of climate change on soil properties in agriculture has become a terrifying reality across the world. Abiotic stresses caused by climate change, such as salinity, drought, and temperature fluctuations. It is wreaking havoc on the physiological response, yield, and overall yield of crops. This ultimately poses a serious threat to food security and agricultural ecosystems around the world. The use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides contributes to the rapid deterioration and change of the climate. Therefore, a careful strategy is required. environmentally friendly and more sustainable To reduce the impact of climate-related damage on the agricultural sector. This article reviews the damaging effects recently reported. This is from stress caused by many plant organisms. This is coupled with two emerging mitigation strategies: biochar and biostimulants. In light of recent studies focused on combating the worsening effects of environmental degradation and climate change on plant physiological responses, yields, and soil properties, and environment. Here we highlight the impact of climate change on agriculture and soil properties. along with more recent mitigation strategies using biochar and biostimulants. The goal is to protect soil, agriculture and the environment.
Climate change refers to long-term and significant changes in weather measures such as rain patterns, temperature, wind, or snowfall . Global warming and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are considered to be important factors affecting the climate. Accelerating climate change  due to ever-increasing anthropological activities. Global average temperatures have thus increased by 0.9 °C since the 19th century and are expected to increase further to 1.5 °C by 2050.  The continued and wide-ranging increase in greenhouse gas emissions has had a significant impact. They affect terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems, causing massive and irreversible losses . These greenhouse gases block the transmission of infrared radiation that attempts to escape from the atmosphere and trap heat. Keep it hot. As in the ‘greenhouse’  , the major sources of greenhouse gases include the burning of fossil fuels. Using nitrogen fertilizer, soil management, flooded rice fields land conversion biomass combustion Livestock production and manure management . Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on agriculture through both direct and indirect effects on crops, soil, livestock, and pests.  Although changes in the landscape Weathering is a slow process that involves relatively small changes in temperature and precipitation over long periods of time. But these slow climate changes can still affect soil processes, especially those related to soil fertility. The impacts of climate change on soil are expected to be due to changes in soil moisture conditions and increases in soil temperature and carbon dioxide.
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 Global climate change is expected to have an impact on soil processes and properties that are important in restoring soil fertility and productivity.  Important impacts of climate change This is expected to occur due to an increase in CO.
And changes in rainfall patterns can significantly reduce crop yields.  Changes in temperature, humidity, and wet-dry cycles and freeze-thaw, etc., can lead to changes in the growth and physiology of soil microorganisms . Climate-induced changes in environmental parameters can influence both the structure and function of microbial communities in earth and modify, for example, the level of interaction between microorganisms required for the decomposition of organic pollutants in the soil. The amount of organic carbon in the soil Soil properties such as pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), water retention capacity (WEC) and nutrient content [12, 13, 14]. In addition, extreme weather events such as droughts, heat waves Very hot and heavy rains leading to flooding has increased over the past several decades, leaching, soil erosion And runoff is increasing at an alarming rate. Improving crop production to meet increasing demand due to a growing population. Amid the threat of climate change It is considered a challenging job. Therefore, we need more attention to adaptation and mitigation research. Over the past few decades Agricultural technology has been successful in eliminating hunger from many parts of the world. But it depends on the method and use of chemicals. This raises more concerns for the environment, health, and future agriculture . Recently, data-intensive agricultural systems and technologies, chemical fertilizers (containing N, P, or K), have been overused to meet demand. Plant Nutrients for Increasing Agricultural Productivity Around the World  The use of chemical fertilizers causes more harm than good in the long run, so modern agriculture requires cleaner and greener strategies. To improve crop yields and alleviate the effects of climate change at the same time.
There are various requirements and strategies. Come out to oppose the use of agrochemicals and provide assistance in agricultural improvements such as biochar, biostimulants. and biofertilizers [17, 18, 19]. Recent advances in research have provided evidence that these strategies have the potential to improve soil properties and crop yields. and compensate for significant levels of greenhouse gas emissions. All of these strategies work to reduce the effects of climate change and act as substitutes for agrochemicals. These strategies have drawn attention to naturally occurring products to replace the demand and use of synthetic products [20, 21, 22].
In an attempt to summarize the potential of bioinnovations for simultaneously increasing soil fertility, crop yields, and solving environmental problems, we highlight the unique advantages of two innovations: biochar and biostimulants. In this review We provide an assessment, based on what is recently known, of the potential of various biological tools such as biochar and biostimulants. as a green strategy to counter the impacts of climate change on the atmosphere and agriculture.
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In the agricultural sector Climate fluctuations such as global rainfall. The continuous increase in carbon dioxide and average temperature As a result, the frequency of extreme events causing catastrophic floods and droughts has increased. They pose a serious threat to global crops and grain production [23, 24] (Figure 1). Variations in temperature and rainfall directly affect the growth and maturation period of plants. This is because crops are adversely affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses . According to recent studies, biotic and abiotic stresses are the leading cause of agricultural yield loss across the world. world up to 30–50%  , in addition to yield losses. Climate change also poses a threat in terms of the significant expansion of pests and pathogens. This may lead to increased frequency and severity of plant diseases [27, 28, 29].
With the increase in human population and industrial development The frequency and consequences of global warming are expected to increase. This is not limited to any specific region. but are ultimately distributed throughout the global ecosystem . The harmful effects of climate change on crop yields may compromise and risk global food security [31, 32]. Therefore, Food security and climate change are therefore considered two of the major challenges of the 21st century  .
In addition to directly affecting plants Climate change also has negative effects on soil systems. Fluctuations in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the rate, pattern, and amount of precipitation, and increases in temperature. It is changing soil and plant systems. It affects the decomposition rate and organic carbon levels in the soil [34, 35]. Soil structure, fertility Number of microorganisms and various processes It depends directly on the organic carbon present in the soil [34, 35].
Recent studies have shown that the combined effects of temperature and humidity determine the process of converting minerals into soil compounds . The frequency of fluctuations and precipitation and seasonal temperature also affect the physical water properties. of the soil by changing the soil water regime. Physical properties of soil such as