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Several notable Irish writers. Clockwise from top left: Jonathan Swift; W.B. Yeats; Oscar Wilde; James Joyce; Colm Toibín; Seamus Heaney; Samuel Beckett; GB Shaw

Famous Irish Poets And Writers

Famous Irish Poets And Writers

Irish literature is literature written in the Irish, Latin, Glish and Scottish (Ulster Scots) languages ​​on the island of Ireland. The earliest recorded Irish writing dates back to the 7th century and was created by monks who wrote in both Latin and Irish, including religious texts, poetry and mythological stories. There is a large surviving body of Irish mythological writings, including stories such as The Táin and Mad King Swey.

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The Glish language was introduced to Ireland in the 13th century, after the Norman invasion of Ireland. The 16th and 17th cturies saw a great expansion of glish power over Ireland, further expanding the presce of early modern glish speakers. One theory is that in the latter part of the nineteenth century there was a rapid replacement of Irish by Glish in most of the country, largely due to the Great Famine and the subsequent decimation of the Irish population through starvation and emigration .

Another theory among modern scholars is that the language shift was much earlier than a sudden cataclysmic one

At the d of the time, however, cultural nationalism showed a new ergy, marked by the Gaelic Revival (which encouraged a modern literature in Irish) and more generally by the Irish Literary Revival.

Found its first great exponents in Richard Head and Jonathan Swift, followed by Laurce Sterne, Oliver Goldsmith, and Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Other Irish writers in English include Mary Tighe, Thady Connellan, Arthur Murphy, John O’Keeffe, Nicholas Brady, Sydney, Lady Morgan, Edmond Malone, Hugh Kelly, Matthew Concan, Anne Donnellan, Samuel Madd and Thomas Dermody.

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The descendants of Scottish settlers in Ulster maintained an Ulster-Scottish writing tradition, with a particularly strong tradition of rhyming poetry.

At the end of the 19th century and throughout the 20th century, Irish literature included the work of authors such as Oscar Wilde, Bram Stoker, James Joyce, W.B. Yeats, Samuel Beckett, Elizabeth Bow, C.S. Lewis, Kate O’Bri and George Bernard Shaw, not all of whom stayed in Ireland.

Although Glish was the dominant Irish literary language in the 20th century, works of high quality were also produced in Irish. A pioneering modernist writer in Irish was Pádraic Ó Conaire, and traditional life was forcefully expressed in a series of autobiographies by native west coast speakers, exemplified by the work of Tomás Ó Criomhthain and Peig Sayers. Máiréad Ní Ghráda wrote numerous successful plays often influenced by Bertolt Brecht, as well as the first translation of Peter Pan, Tír na Deo, and Manannán, the first Scice fiction book in Irish. The outstanding modernist prose writer in Irish was Máirtín Ó Cadhain, and prominent poets were Caitlín Maude, Máirtín Ó Direáin, Seán Ó Ríordáin and Máire Mhac an tSaoi. Prominent bilingual writers included Brdan Behan (who wrote poetry and a play in Irish) and Flann O’Bri. Two of O’Bri’s novels, At Swim Two Birds and The Third Policeman , are considered early examples of postmodern fiction, but he also wrote a satirical novel in Irish called An Béal Bocht (translated as The Poor Mouth ). Liam O’Flaherty, who gained fame as a writer in English, also published a book of short stories in Irish (Dúil). Irish-language literature has maintained its vitality in the 21st century.

Famous Irish Poets And Writers

Most attention has been given to Irish writers who wrote in English and who were at the forefront of the modernist movement, especially James Joyce, whose novel Ulysses is considered one of the most influential works of the culture The playwright Samuel Beckett wrote a number of important plays in addition to a large number of prose fiction, including Waiting for Godot. Several Irish writers have excelled in writing short stories, notably Edna O’Bri, Frank O’Connor, Lord Dunsany and William Trevor. Other notable Irish writers from the twentieth century include poets Eavan Boland and Patrick Kavanagh, playwrights Tom Murphy and Brian Friel, and novelists Edna O’Bri and John McGahern. In the late twentieth century, Irish poets, especially those from Northern Ireland, came to prominence, including Derek Mahon, Medbh McGuckian, John Montague, Seamus Heaney and Paul Muldoon. Influential works of writing continue to emerge in Northern Ireland with huge success, such as Anna Burns, Sinéad Morrissey, and Lisa McGee.

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Well-known Irish writers in the gloss in the twenty-first guy include Edna O’Bri, Colum McCann, Anne right, Roddy Doyle, Moya Cannon, Sebastian Barry, Colm Toibín, and John Banville, all of whom have won major awards. Younger writers include Sinéad Gleeson, Paul Murray, Anna Burns, Billy O’Callaghan, Kevin Barry, Emma Donoghue, Donal Ryan, Sally Rooney, William Wall, Marina Carr, and Martin McDonagh.

The Irish became fully literate with the advent of Christianity in the fifth century. Before that time, a simple writing system known as “ogham” was used for inscriptions. These inscriptions are mostly simple “x son of y” statements. The introduction of Latin led to the adaptation of the Latin alphabet to the Irish language and the rise of a small literary class, both clerical and lay.

The earliest works of literature produced in Ireland are by St. Patrick; his Confessio and Epistola, both in Latin.

The earliest literature in Irish consisted of lyric poetry and prose sagas in the distant past. The earliest poetry, composed in the 6th century, illustrates a vivid religious belief or describes the world of nature, and was sometimes written in the margins of illuminated manuscripts. “The Blackbird of Belfast Lough”, a fragment of syllabic verse probably dating from the 9th century, has inspired reinterpretations and translations in modern times by John Montague, John Hewitt, Seamus Heaney, Ciaran Carson and Thomas Kinsella, as well as a version in modern Irish by Tomás Ó Floinn.

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The Book of Armagh is a 9th-century illuminated manuscript written primarily in Latin, with early texts relating to St. Patrick and some of the oldest surviving copies of Old Irish. It is one of the earliest manuscripts produced by an insular church to contain an almost complete copy of the New Testament. The manuscript was the work of a writer named Ferdomnach of Armagh (died 845 or 846). Ferdomnach wrote the first part of the book in 807 or 808, for Patrick’s heir (comarba) Torbach. It was one of the symbols of the office for the Archbishop of Armagh.

The Annals of Ulster (Irish: Annála Uladh) cover years from AD 431 to AD 1540 and were compiled in the territory of what is now Northern Ireland: attempts up to AD 1489 were compiled in the late 15th century by the author Ruaidhrí Ó Luinín , under his patron Cathal Óg Mac Maghnusa on the island of Belle Isle on Lough Erne. The Ulster Cycle, written in the 12th century, is a body of medieval Irish heroic tales and sagas of the traditional heroes of the Ulaid in what is now eastern Ulster and northern Leinster, particularly the counties of Armagh, Down and Louth. The stories are written in Old and Middle Irish, mostly in prose, interspersed with occasional passages. The language of the earliest stories can be dated to the 8th kt, and evts and characters are referred to in poems from the 7th.

After the Old Irish period, there is a great variety of poetry from medieval and Raissance times. By degrees the Irish created a classical tradition in their own language. Verse remained the chief means of literary expression, and by the 12th century questions of form and style were essentially settled, with little change until the 17th century.

Famous Irish Poets And Writers

Medieval Irish writers also produced an extensive literature in Latin: this Hiberno-Latin literature was notable for its learned vocabulary, including a greater use of loanwords from Greek and Hebrew than was common in medieval Latin elsewhere in Europe.

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The literary Irish language (known in English as Classical Irish), was a sophisticated medium with elaborate verse forms, and was taught in bardic schools (i.e. academies of higher learning) both in Ireland and in Scotland.

These produced historians, jurists and a professional literary class who depended on the aristocracy for patronage. Much of the writing produced during this period was conventional in character, in praise of patrons and their families, but the best of it was of exceptionally high quality and contained poetry of a personal nature. Gofraidh Fionn Ó Dálaigh (14th century), Tadhg Óg Ó hUiginn (15th century) and Eochaidh Ó hEoghusa (16th century) were among the most prominent of these poets. Every noble family had a body of manuscripts containing geological and other material, and the work of the best poets was used for teaching purposes in the bardic schools.

In this hierarchical society, fully educated poets belonged to the highest layer; they were court officials, but presumably they still had ancit magical powers.

Women were largely excluded from official literature, although female aristocrats could be patrons in it

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